Adivasi (a Hindi word that literally means the original inhabitants) is a term for a heterogeneous set of ethnic and tribal groups believed to be the aboriginal population of India. Adivasi societies are present in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and other South Asian nations.
Adivasi is officially recognized by the Indian government as "Scheduled Tribes" in the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which is eligible for certain affirmative action measures.
The Constitution of India, Article 366 (25) defines Scheduled Tribes as "such tribes or tribal communities or part of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to the scheduled Tribes (STs) for the purposes of this Constitution".
In Article 342, the procedure to be followed for specification of a scheduled tribe is prescribed. However, it does not contain the criterion for the specification of any community as scheduled tribe. An often used criterion is based on attributes such as:-
Geographical isolation - They live in cloistered, exclusive, remote and inhospitable areas such as hills and forests,
Economic Backwardness- Their livelihood is based on primitive agriculture, a low-value closed economy with a low level of technology which leads to their poverty. They have low levels of literacy and health.
Distinctive culture, language and religion - Communities have developed their own distinctive culture, language and religion. Shyness of contact – they have a marginal degree of contact with other cultures and people.
To learn about different types of Jharkhandi Adivasi, Go to link at side.